The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) includes the trans-Alaska crude-oil pipeline, 12 pump stations, several hundred miles of feeder pipelines, and the Valdez Marine Terminal. TAPS is one of the world’s largest pipeline systems. It is commonly called the Alaska pipeline, trans-Alaska pipeline, or Alyeska pipeline, (or the pipeline as referred to in Alaska), but those terms technically apply only to the 800 miles (1,287 km) of the pipeline with the diameter of 48 inches (122 cm) that conveys oil from Prudhoe Bay, to Valdez, Alaska. The research being done and the positive improvements to this system are important for people to know about


Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet’s water. They generate 32% of the world’s net primary production. They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts, in the water. Approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has an average salinity of 35 parts per thousand (ppt) of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems.Research and discovery is being done every day which will preserve and protect our marine legacy.


OTS’s largest machine, the V20, can clean up to 210,000 US gallons of oily water per day. On July 8, 2010, OTS reported it had 9 centrifuges deployed in the Gulf of Mexico, with 23 additional machines under construction and scheduled for shipment to Louisiana by the end of August 2010. These small but mighty machines represent a huge step forward in this arena and OTS should be commended for its creativity, passion and devotion to helping solve one of the world’s great problems.


Offshore drilling is well into a new era of safety for energy exploration. The oil and natural gas industry has begun working with federal regulators on a comprehensive review of offshore operations. The industry clearly understand that the future of offshore drilling depends on its ability to conduct operations safely. Federal regulators and the public should rest assured. The oil and natural gas industry and the federal government have together taken great strides to enhance the safety of offshore operations.


Krill are considered an important trophic level connection – near the bottom of the food chain – because they feed on phytoplankton, and to a lesser extent, zooplankton, converting these into a form suitable for many larger animals for whom krill makes up the largest part of their diet including the Blue whale. One species, the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, makes up an estimated biomass of around 379,000,000 tons, making it among the species with the largest total biomass. Of this, over half is eaten by whales, seals, penguins, squid and fish each year, and is replaced by growth and reproduction. Most krill species display large daily vertical migrations, thus providing food for predators near the surface at night and in deeper waters during the day.


At least twenty chemical elements are known to be required to support human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles as well as electrolytes. However, as many as twenty-nine elements in total including the common hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are suggested to be used by mammals, as a result of studies of biochemical, special uptake, and metabolic handling studies. Most of the known and suggested mineral nutrients are of relatively low atomic weight, and are reasonably common on land, or at least, common in the ocean and are known to help cleanse the atmosphere.


The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) is an international marine research collaboration dedicated to advancing scientific understanding of the Earth through drilling, coring, and monitoring the sub-seafloor. The research enabled by IODP samples and data improves scientific understanding of changing climate and ocean conditions, the origins of ancient life, risks posed by geo-hazards, and the structure and processes of Earth’s tectonic plates and uppermost mantle. IODP builds on the research of four previous scientific ocean drilling programs: Project Mohole, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program. Together, these programs represent the longest running and most successful international Earth science collaboration.


Neuroregeneration refers to the re-growth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, orsynapses. Neuroregeneration differs between the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system by the functional mechanisms and especially the extent and speed. When an axon is damaged, the distal segment undergoes Wallerian degeneration, losing its myelin sheath. The proximal segment can either die by apoptosis or undergo the chromatolytic reaction, which is an attempt at repair. In the central nervous system, synaptic stripping occurs as glial foot processes invade the dead synapse.


A blue whale’s buildup of earwax archives its history of stress levels and exposure to chemical pollutants, which could allow researchers to piece together new details about the animal’s life, a study shows. The blue whale is the largest animal on Earth, and an endangered species. Like many other baleen whales, these massive creatures tend to accumulate layers of wax in their ear canals, which over time results in long earplugs. Scientists in the past have used this waxy matrix as an aging tool, similar to counting tree rings, study researcher Sascha Usenko, an assistant professor of environmental science at Baylor University, explained in a statement. The earplug, however, had never been used to obtain a chemical profile.


Traditional farming is a hazardous occupation with particular risks that often take their toll on the health of people. Such risks include: exposure to infectious diseases such as malaria and schistoso-mes, and exposure to toxic chemicals commonly used as pesticides and fungicides. Underwater farming leads away from health problems such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes because the subsequent lower costs encourage healthier eating and has encouraged the onset of new, pharmaceutical discoveries.


Underwater farming is an aquatic ecosystem that performs many important environmental functions. For example, besides providing a healthier food source, they recycle nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife. Aquatic ecosystems are also used for human recreation, and are very important to the tourism industry, especially in coastal regions.


According to the US Department of Energy, a network of farms totaling an area half the size of Maine could grow enough biofuel to replace all of the oil used in the US. Algae can be converted into various types of fuels, depending on the technique and the part of the cells used. The lipid, or oily part of the algae biomass can be extracted and converted into biodiesel through a process similar to that used for any other vegetable oil, or converted in a refinery into “drop-in” replacements for petroleum-based fuels. Alternatively or following lipid extraction, the carbohydrate content of algae can be fermented into bioethanol or butanol fuel.


A “Hydrokinetic” turbine is an integrated turbine generator to produce electricity in a free flow environment. It does not need a dam or diversion. Instream Energy Systems has coined the phrase Instream Energy Generation Technology or IEGT places turbines in rivers, manmade channels, tidal waters, or ocean currents. These turbines use the flow of water to turn them, thus generating electricity for the power grid on nearby land. In effect, IEGT is like planting windmills in the water and is environmentally friendly. While hydrokinetic includes generation from ocean tides, currents and waves, many researchers believe its most practical application in the near term is likely to be in rivers and streams.


Nitrogen pollution has become a crisis in many areas, causing algae blooms and decreased oxygen levels from their subsequent decomposition. Our farms sequester nitrogen and limit the potential for algae blooms. Excess fertilizer remnants come from farms that are near rivers and lakes. The materials are then caught in these rivers and lakes which flow into the larger bodies of waters and create the dead zones. Nitrogen and phosphorous enter the river through upstream runoff of fertilizers, soil erosion, animal wastes, and sewage.By controlling less usage of fertilizer, we can reduce the amount of runoff that is wasted into the sea.


Sperm whales have been shown to increase the levels of primary production and carbon export to the deep ocean by depositing iron rich feces into surface waters. The feces causes phytoplankton to grow and take up more carbon from the atmosphere. When the phytoplankton dies, it sinks to the deep ocean and takes the atmospheric carbon with it. The sperm whales result in removing 200,000 tons of carbon from the atmosphere each year.


Ocean Therapy Solutions is a company owned by actor Kevin Costner. The company specializes in developing centrifugal oil-water separators. After the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, Costner wanted to find a new way to separate oil from water, so he acquired the company. Costner has found and developed one of the most important systems for this problem imaginable.


Ocean garbage patches are vast but dispersed. By acting like an artificial coastline, Ocean Cleanup’s array passively concentrates the plastic by orders of magnitude, 100% powered by natural ocean currents. Their floating barriers are designed to capture virtually any type of debris. Models show that by utilizing vast rotational ocean currents, a single 100km installation can catch almost half the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in 10 years.


Aqua-farming will be the grocery store of the future. It is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, seaweed, oysters, shrimp and aquatic plants. Aqua-farming involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Broadly speaking, the relation of aquaculture to finfish and shellfish fisheries is analogous to the relation of agriculture to hunting and gathering.