The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) includes the trans-Alaska crude-oil pipeline, 12 pump stations, several hundred miles of feeder pipelines, and the Valdez Marine Terminal. TAPS is one of the world’s largest pipeline systems. It is commonly called the Alaska pipeline, trans-Alaska pipeline, or Alyeska pipeline, (or the pipeline as referred to in Alaska), but those terms technically apply only to the 800 miles (1,287 km) of the pipeline with the diameter of 48 inches (122 cm) that conveys oil from Prudhoe Bay, to Valdez, Alaska. The research being done and the positive improvements to this system are important for people to know about
Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet’s water. They generate 32% of the world’s net primary production. They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts, in the water. Approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has an average salinity of 35 parts per thousand (ppt) of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems.Research and discovery is being done every day which will preserve and protect our marine legacy.
OTS’s largest machine, the V20, can clean up to 210,000 US gallons of oily water per day. On July 8, 2010, OTS reported it had 9 centrifuges deployed in the Gulf of Mexico, with 23 additional machines under construction and scheduled for shipment to Louisiana by the end of August 2010. These small but mighty machines represent a huge step forward in this arena and OTS should be commended for its creativity, passion and devotion to helping solve one of the world’s great problems.
Offshore drilling is well into a new era of safety for energy exploration. The oil and natural gas industry has begun working with federal regulators on a comprehensive review of offshore operations. The industry clearly understand that the future of offshore drilling depends on its ability to conduct operations safely. Federal regulators and the public should rest assured. The oil and natural gas industry and the federal government have together taken great strides to enhance the safety of offshore operations.
Ocean garbage patches are vast but dispersed. By acting like an artificial coastline, Ocean Cleanup’s array passively concentrates the plastic by orders of magnitude, 100% powered by natural ocean currents. Their floating barriers are designed to capture virtually any type of debris. Models show that by utilizing vast rotational ocean currents, a single 100km installation can catch almost half the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in 10 years.
Aqua-farming will be the grocery store of the future. It is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, seaweed, oysters, shrimp and aquatic plants. Aqua-farming involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Broadly speaking, the relation of aquaculture to finfish and shellfish fisheries is analogous to the relation of agriculture to hunting and gathering.